Geschichte des Vereins

Hin­ter dem Stu­den­ten­wohn­heim Geschwis­ter Scholl e.V. steht der 1956 gegrün­de­te, gleich­na­mi­ge Ver­ein (Stu­den­ten­wohn­heim Geschwis­ter Scholl e.V.). Er ist Eigen­tü­mer des Wohn­heims und ver­wal­tet es seit des­sen Eröff­nung 1960.

History of the association

The dorm Geschwis­ter Scholl e.V. is owned and mana­ged by the asso­cia­ti­on with the same name (Stu­den­ten­wohn­heim Geschwis­ter Scholl e.V.), which was foun­ded in 1956. It owns the dor­mi­to­ry and has mana­ged it sin­ce it ope­ned in 1960.

The initial situation (1946 to 1956)

Aerial photograph in the area of Schwere Reiter Straße in 1945, the Schollheim property is marked in red. Source: StaMü FS-1945–7125

After the Second World War, 50% of the buil­dings in the city of Munich were des­troy­ed. As a result, about 300,000 peop­le were homeless. When the Tech­ni­cal Uni­ver­si­ty (TUM) resu­med tea­ching in April 1946 and the Lud­wig Maxi­mi­li­an Uni­ver­si­ty (LMU) in June 1946, the con­struc­tion of stu­dent dor­mi­to­ries was not the order of the day. Much more pro­ble­ma­tic was the crea­ti­on of housing in gene­ral to eli­mi­na­te the grea­test need. To achie­ve this goal, the allo­ca­ti­on gui­de­li­nes for social housing exclu­ded the ren­ting of rooms to stu­dents. At the same time, howe­ver, the num­ber of stu­dents at both uni­ver­si­ties was rising, and by 1949 the­re were alrea­dy about 15,000. Rising stu­dent num­bers now fur­ther incre­a­sed the housing shor­ta­ge in Munich. By the ear­ly 1950s, the situa­ti­on had beco­me even more acu­te. Sin­ce the pro­mo­ti­on of housing for stu­dents could not be a prio­ri­ty in housing poli­cy in view of the gene­ral housing shor­ta­ge, an impro­ve­ment of the situa­ti­on was only pos­si­ble through pri­va­te initiative.

The foundation of the association (1956)

Then as now, child­ren of non-wealt­hy par­ents should also have a chan­ce to attend col­le­ge. A pre­re­qui­si­te for this was, and still is, the avai­la­bi­li­ty of afford­a­ble housing.

In order to crea­te this, the non-pro­fit asso­cia­ti­on „Stu­den­ten­wohn­heim Geschwis­ter Scholl e.V.” was foun­ded on June 13, 1956 in an adjoi­ning room of the Café Ode­on on Munich’s Ode­ons­platz. The sole aim of the asso­cia­ti­on’s sta­tu­tes: the con­struc­tion and main­ten­an­ce of a stu­dent dormitory.

The idea of buil­ding a stu­dent dor­mi­to­ry had ori­gi­na­ted in the Arbeits­ge­mein­schaft Sozi­al­de­mo­kra­ti­scher Aka­de­mi­ker (Working Group of Social Demo­cra­tic Aca­de­mics). The sug­ges­ti­on to found an asso­cia­ti­on came from Dr. Hans-Jochen Vogel, a mem­ber of the SPD and the Sozia­lis­ti­scher Deut­scher Stu­den­ten­bund (SDS). Vogel, who was 30 at the time, was a district court judge and an employee in the sta­te chan­cel­le­ry of Bava­ri­an Prime Minis­ter Dr. Wil­helm Hoeg­ner, and later beca­me Munich’s mayor and federal minis­ter of jus­ti­ce. Through the working group and pri­va­te acquain­tan­ces, Vogel was able to win over three per­so­na­li­ties to sup­port the plan to build a stu­dent dormitory: 

  • the der­ma­to­lo­gist and rec­tor of the LMU, Dr. Alfred Mar­chio­ni­ni,
  • the Bava­ri­an Sta­te Minis­ter of Jus­ti­ce, Fritz Koch, and
  • the board mem­ber of the then Baye­ri­sche Hypo­the­ken- und Wech­sel­bank, Adolf Eugen Samstag.

The invi­ta­ti­on of the com­mit­tee led by Alfred Mar­chio­ni­ni was accep­ted by 28 per­so­na­li­ties, inclu­ding poli­ti­ci­ans, pro­fes­sors, entre­pre­neurs, tra­de unio­nists, ban­kers, publis­hers, wri­ters, jour­na­lists and seni­or civil ser­vants. Many of them were pro­mi­nent oppon­ents and per­se­cu­tees of Natio­nal Socia­lism, most of them becau­se of their Social Demo­cra­tic com­mit­ment, becau­se they hid Jews or hel­ped them escape. They repre­sent the „other” Ger­ma­ny around the time of World War 2.

When the asso­cia­ti­on was foun­ded, the fol­lowing posi­ti­ons were elected:

  • Chair­man: Prof. Dr. Alfred Mar­chio­ni­ni (see above),
  • as his depu­ty: Minis­ter of Sta­te Dr. Fritz Koch (see above),
  • as asses­sors: Adolf Eugen Sams­tag (see abo­ve) and Erwin Essl, mem­ber of the sta­te par­lia­ment and district lea­der of IG Metall Bava­ria, also chair­man of the Socia­list Workers’ Youth in Schwein­furt until 1933,
  • Dr. Hans-Jochen Vogel (see abo­ve) as mana­ging director.

The Bava­ri­an Minis­ter Pre­si­dent Dr. Wil­helm Hoeg­ner beca­me patron of the asso­cia­ti­on (see above).

The assem­bly deci­ded to appoint ano­t­her asses­sor by way of addi­tio­nal elec­tion in order to com­pen­sa­te for the domi­nan­ce of Social Demo­cra­tic mem­bers of the asso­cia­ti­on on the board.

This was:

Dr. Rolf Roden­stock, Pre­si­dent of the Bava­ri­an Employ­ers’ Asso­cia­ti­on and mem­ber of the Fede­ra­ti­on of Ger­man Industries.

Photo gallery of the leading founding members

Other foun­ding mem­bers included:

It is striking that many of the asso­cia­ti­on and board mem­bers also had per­so­nal rela­ti­ons­hips with each other:

Patron Wil­helm Hoeg­ner and the father of the Scholl sib­lings, Robert Scholl, knew each other per­so­nal­ly; they had their house on the same street. A friendship deve­lo­ped out of the neigh­bor­hood, and the Hoeg­ner and Scholl fami­lies fre­quent­ly visi­ted each other.

Fur­ther­mo­re, Alfred Mar­chio­ni­ni was a friend and sup­por­ter of Hans-Jochen Vogel, who in turn knew Jus­ti­ce Minis­ter Koch very well from his work from 1952 as an asses­sor in the Minis­try of Jus­ti­ce and the Bava­ri­an Sta­te Chan­cel­le­ry. Vogel­’s cir­cle of friends also inclu­ded the edi­tor-in-chief of the Bava­ri­an sta­te news­pa­per, Dr. Karl-Heinz Lange.

Repairs and conversions

No house in the world remains new and as inta­ct as the day it is com­ple­ted. From the out­side, wind and wea­ther, heat, cold, rain, ice and snow gnaw away at it; from the insi­de, resi­dents and visi­tors con­stant­ly wear it down. Tha­t’s why the dor­mi­to­ry has had to under­go a num­ber of reno­va­tions sin­ce it was built.

The naming (1956)

In addi­ti­on to alle­via­ting the housing shor­ta­ge for stu­dents, the­re was ano­t­her moti­ve for buil­ding a stu­dent dor­mi­to­ry. The then Bava­ri­an SPD chair­man and depu­ty federal chair­man, Wal­de­mar von Knoe­rin­gen, wan­ted to trans­form the SPD from a class par­ty into a peo­p­le’s par­ty by, among other things, making it elec­ta­ble for aca­de­mics. The Arbeits­ge­mein­schaft Sozi­al­de­mo­kra­ti­scher Aka­de­mi­ker (Working Group of Social Demo­cra­tic Aca­de­mics) the­re­fo­re con­si­de­red that a stu­dent dor­mi­to­ry could be built to pro­mo­te the SPD and to inspi­re young peop­le, future aca­de­mics, to sup­port social democracy.

This idea was decisi­ve for the naming „Geschwis­ter Scholl”: By remem­be­ring two cou­ra­ge­ous young peop­le who sacri­fi­ced their lives for free­dom and demo­cra­cy, the cur­rent genera­ti­on of stu­dents should be moti­va­ted to com­mit them­sel­ves to the values of demo­cra­cy and the Basic Law. The­re­fo­re, the working group sought con­ta­ct with Robert Scholl, the father of the Scholl sib­lings, and recei­ved his appro­val for the naming. This decisi­on was cer­tain­ly also pro­mo­ted by the friendship that con­nec­ted the patron Hoeg­ner with Robert Scholl.

Opening of house 1 and unveiling of the monument (1956 to 1960)

The chair­man of the asso­cia­ti­on, Alfred Mar­chio­ni­ni, and other pro­mi­nent com­ra­des-in-arms suc­cee­ded, through their own good examp­le and the wealth of their good con­nec­tions, in buil­ding up the necessa­ry equi­ty capi­tal through fund­rai­sing in just two years, in order to be able to app­ly for government aid and bank loans for the con­struc­tion of the first house. After the archi­tect Wer­ner Wir­sing had been selec­ted, con­struc­tion took a litt­le more than a year, and the first stu­dents moved in, House 1 was ope­ned on Janu­a­ry 7, 1960. 144 afford­a­ble living spaces had been created.

The ope­ning speech by Dr. Hans-Jochen Vogel was atten­ded by other pro­mi­nent guests: Mr. and Mrs. Hoeg­ner, Robert Scholl, Prof. Dr. Theo­dor Maunz (Bava­ri­an Minis­ter of Cul­tu­re from 1957–1964), Prof. Dr. Max Kneissl (Rec­tor of the TUM), Prof. Dr. Egon Wiberg (Pro­rec­tor of the LMU), Tho­mas Wim­mer (Lord Mayor of Munich), the Wir­sing cou­p­le, Mat­hil­de Mar­chio­ni­ni, Hans Deme­ter (Chair­man of the Munich SPD) and Man­fred Schmidt (Depu­ty Federal Chair­man of the SDS).

Dr. Hans-Jochen Vogel, excerpt from the speech at the ope­ning of the Schol­lheim on Janu­a­ry 7, 1960

„The Federal Repu­blic of Ger­ma­ny is trou­bled the­se days by a wave of anti-Semi­tic and neo-Nazi graf­fi­ti. This in par­ti­cu­lar should be a rea­son for us to ack­now­ledge the vic­tims of Natio­nal Socia­lism and its atro­ci­ties with all cla­ri­ty. I belie­ve, Mayor Scholl, that it has a deep mea­ning that we give our house the name of your child­ren, who were mur­de­red by a des­pi­ca­ble sys­tem, espe­cial­ly in the­se days.“ (trans­la­ted grom ger­man with deepl.com)

Hans Jochen Vogel 1960
Dr. Hans-Jochen Vogel with his wife at the commemoration ceremony for the unveiling of the monument.

Dr. Hans-Jochen Vogel­’s speech has lost none of its rele­van­ce at the time. The stu­dent dor­mi­to­ry was to be a place of remem­bran­ce and a remin­der for the future. The asso­cia­ti­on the­re­fo­re deci­ded to erect a memo­ri­al to the mur­de­red Scholl sib­lings and to hold a com­pe­ti­ti­on for it. The design by the sculp­tor Chris­ti­ne Stad­ler was awar­ded a pri­ze and rea­li­zed. The memo­ri­al is one of the artis­t’s best-known works. It was finan­ced by a dona­ti­on of 1,500 DM from IG Metall Bayern.

At the unvei­ling of the monu­ment on Febru­a­ry 17, 1962, the his­to­ri­an and asso­cia­ti­on mem­ber Prof. Dr. Alex­an­der Schenk Graf von Stauf­fen­berg, bro­ther of Claus von Stauf­fen­berg, spo­ke, among other things, as follows:

Am Denkmal (v.l.): Vereinsvorstand Prof. Dr. Marchionini und Prof. Dr. Alexander Graf von Stauffenberg
At the memorial (from left): Association Chairman Prof. Dr. Marchionini and Prof. Dr. Alexander Graf von Stauffenberg

„For pre­cise­ly this seems to me to have been the real secret of their sacri­fi­cial walk and their dif­fi­cult and proud death, 19 years ago today, the mea­ning of their dif­fi­cult and self-cho­sen path impo­sed on them in the bloom of youth, which is expres­sed in one word, „ato­ne­ment”: that they have clean­sed the stai­ned earth and res­to­red the lost self-respect to the rest of us, who by thousands and thousands have con­tri­bu­t­ed to the dis­as­ter through pus­ill­ani­mi­ty and cowar­di­ce, through acquie­scence and let­ting it hap­pen.“ (trans­la­ted from ger­man with deepl.com)

Many pro­mi­nent peop­le were pre­sent in the hall to cele­bra­te the unvei­ling of the monu­ment. The chair­man of the asso­cia­ti­on, Prof. Dr. Alfred Mar­chio­ni­ni, was able to wel­co­me, among others, Dr. Wil­helm Hoeg­ner, Munich’s Lord Mayor Dr. Hans-Jochen Vogel, Robert Scholl and Erwin Essl, repre­sen­ting IG Metall.

In addi­ti­on to the chair­man of the asso­cia­ti­on, Prof. Dr. Alfred Mar­chio­ni­ni, the mana­ging direc­tor of the asso­cia­ti­on, Dr. Hans-Jochen Vogel, was ano­t­her dri­ving for­ce behind the foun­ding of the asso­cia­ti­on, the fund­rai­sing and the con­struc­tion of House 1. In 1960, he was elec­ted Lord Mayor of the sta­te capi­tal of Munich, at the time just 34 years old.

Picture gallery of the unveiling ceremony of the memorial of the Scholl siblings by Christine Stadler on February 17, 1962

Management under Robert Jenisch (1960 to 2016)

Photo gallery of the chairmen of the association

Sin­ce Dr. Vogel was now unab­le to con­ti­nue the asso­cia­ti­on’s busi­ness, the asso­cia­ti­on had to select someo­ne new for this task. Robert Jenisch, a lawy­er by pro­fes­si­on, who had been a mem­ber of the asso­cia­ti­on from the very begin­ning as a young stu­dent of the SDS, was cho­sen. During the foun­ding peri­od, he had been signi­fi­cant­ly invol­ved in the pre­pa­ra­ti­ons for the con­struc­tion of House 1 and had alrea­dy been actively sup­por­ting the manage­ment for some time. In Decem­ber 1960, he was elec­ted by the gene­ral mee­ting as Vogel­’s suc­ces­sor as mana­ging direc­tor of the asso­cia­ti­on. He immedia­te­ly began fund­rai­sing for House 2, its plan­ning and con­struc­tion. Only four years after the ope­ning of the Geschwis­ter Scholl stu­dent dor­mi­to­ry with House 1, the exten­si­on buil­ding on the neigh­bo­ring rui­ned pro­per­ty with 98 addi­tio­nal rooms could be occu­p­ied at the begin­ning of 1964.

The chair­man of the asso­cia­ti­on, Prof. Dr. Alfred Mar­chio­ni­ni, lived to see the com­ple­ti­on of House 2, but unfor­tu­n­a­te­ly could not enjoy the suc­cess of the asso­cia­ti­on for long. He died on April 6, 1965, at the age of only 66.

The asso­cia­ti­on’s gene­ral mee­ting elec­ted the bio­che­mist Feo­dor Lynen, then direc­tor of the Max Planck Insti­tu­te for Cell Che­mi­stry in Mar­tins­ried near Munich, as his suc­ces­sor. It is admi­ra­ble that the Nobel Pri­ze win­ner for medi­ci­ne took on this task in addi­ti­on to his nume­rous other hono­ra­ry posts and mem­bers­hips in sci­en­ti­fic com­mit­tees and socie­ties. He died on August 6, 1979, at the age of 68.

After him, the phy­si­cist Edgar Lüscher, full pro­fes­sor for expe­ri­men­tal phy­sics at the TUM, took over the chair­manship of the asso­cia­ti­on. Alt­hough he was very busy with his rese­arch work in the field of solid sta­te phy­sics and with the estab­lish­ment of the phy­sics depart­ment in Gar­ching, he took the necessa­ry time to ful­fill the tasks of the asso­cia­ti­on. Unfor­tu­n­a­te­ly, Pro­fes­sor Lüscher did not live to a ripe old age eit­her; he died on Janu­a­ry 16, 1990, at the age of 64.

As suc­ces­sor of Pro­fes­sor Lüscher for the chair­manship of the asso­cia­ti­on, the asso­cia­ti­on suc­cee­ded in win­ning the well-known der­ma­to­lo­gist Pro­fes­sor Dr. med. Dr. phil. Sieg­fried Borel­li. He was full pro­fes­sor and direc­tor-eme­ri­tus of the Cli­nic and Poly­cli­nic for Der­ma­to­lo­gy and All­er­go­lo­gy of the TUM and medi­cal direc­tor of the Cli­nic for Der­ma­to­lo­gy and All­er­go­lo­gy Davos (Alex­an­der­haus Cli­nic). Pro­fes­sor Borel­li, a for­mer stu­dent and medi­cal col­la­bo­ra­tor of Pro­fes­sor Mar­chio­ni­ni, con­si­de­red it his duty from the begin­ning to dedi­ca­te hims­elf with gre­at com­mit­ment to the work of his aca­de­mic teacher.

In addi­ti­on to his invol­ve­ment in the foun­ding of the asso­cia­ti­on and the con­struc­tion of House 1 and House 2, Mana­ging Direc­tor Robert Jenisch also play­ed a key role in the con­struc­tion of the third con­struc­tion pha­se, House 3. This houses apart­ments and was rea­dy for occup­an­cy in Octo­ber 2019. The appro­vals of the con­struc­tion and finan­cial plan­ning took place during his life­time. He was not able to wit­ness the com­ple­ti­on of House 3, as he died in Octo­ber 2016 at the age of 85, after 56 years of vol­un­ta­ry manage­ment of the asso­cia­ti­on. Like no other, he suc­cee­ded, fought and lived with ener­gy and pas­si­on for his dormitory.

First occupancy of house 3 and future renovations (2016 – today)

Photo gallery of the managing directors of the association

After the death of Robert Jenisch, a new mana­ging direc­tor had to be elec­ted immedia­te­ly to take care of the future of the con­struc­tion of House 3. The death of Robert Jenisch came as a sur­pri­se, but he had alrea­dy pre­pa­red a suc­ces­sor for his tasks. The­re­fo­re, the asso­cia­ti­on’s board was able to elect Tho­mas Knappstein as his suc­ces­sor in the manage­ment. Jenisch knew Knappstein from their joint work at the con­struc­tion tra­de asso­cia­ti­on; at his sug­ges­ti­on, he had been elec­ted to the board as an asses­sor in 2012. The­se were good pre­re­qui­si­tes for taking over from a stan­ding posi­ti­on not only the day-to-day busi­ness of the asso­cia­ti­on but also the super­vi­si­on of the con­struc­tion of House 3 and the pre­pa­ra­ti­ons for plan­ned reno­va­ti­on work on Houses 1 and 2. With the com­ple­ti­on of the con­struc­tion work on House 3, Tho­mas Knappstein step­ped down as mana­ging direc­tor in March due to his time com­mit­ments as an exe­cu­ti­ve at the employ­ers’ lia­bi­li­ty insuran­ce association.

The board appoin­ted Fried­rich Graf­fe, the asso­cia­ti­on’s vice chair­man, initi­al­ly on a pro­vi­sio­nal basis, as his suc­ces­sor. He is alrea­dy mana­ging direc­tor of the Alfred and Karl Mar­chio­ni­ni Foundation.

The long-time chair­man of the asso­cia­ti­on, Prof. Dr. Dr. Sieg­fried Borel­li, step­ped down as chair­man of the board at the end of the gene­ral mee­ting in Janu­a­ry 2020 due to his age. Due to his merits for the home and the asso­cia­ti­on, the gene­ral mee­ting unani­mous­ly deci­ded to offer Prof. Borel­li the hono­ra­ry chair­manship of the association.

His­to­ri­an and media sci­en­tist Prof. Dr. Peter von Rüden was elec­ted as the new chair­man of the board. He was Direc­tor of the Adolf Grim­me Insti­tu­te, Head of Depart­ment for Edu­ca­ti­on and Cul­tu­re at NDR Tele­vi­si­on, and Head of the Rese­arch Cen­ter for Broad­cas­ting Histo­ry at the Leib­nitz Insti­tu­te for Media Rese­arch and the Uni­ver­si­ty of Ham­bur­g’s Insti­tu­te for Modern Ger­man Lite­ra­tu­re and Media Cul­tu­re. From 1969 to 1972, he was a tutor at the Geschwis­ter Scholl stu­dent dor­mi­to­ry and has been an asses­sor on the asso­cia­ti­on’s board sin­ce 2017.

60 years of Schollheim and opening ceremony of house 3: memories for the future (2020)

We, the asso­cia­ti­on and the resi­dents of the dor­mi­to­ry, are proud that the histo­ry of our asso­cia­ti­on, and thus also that of the dor­mi­to­ry, is being con­ti­nued. Its future was dis­cus­sed in detail at the anni­ver­s­a­ry cele­bra­ti­on of 60 years of Schol­lheim and the offi­cial ope­ning of House 3. Fol­lowing on from the histo­ry of the Schol­lheim, Munich’s mayor, Die­ter Rei­ter, the first mana­ging direc­tor of our asso­cia­ti­on, Dr. Hans-Jochen Vogel, and our asso­cia­ti­on chair­man, Prof. Dr. Peter von Rüden, for­mu­la­ted thoughts and wis­hes for the future.

Prof. Dr. von Rüden reca­pi­tu­la­ted the histo­ry of our asso­cia­ti­on and for­mu­la­ted the fol­lowing thought in rela­ti­on to the present:

„For me, [our first patron Wil­helm Hoeg­ner’s] reck­o­ning with the fail­u­re of the demo­crats befo­re the end of the Wei­mar Repu­blic, enti­t­led „Escape from Hit­ler: Memo­ries of the Sur­ren­der of the First Ger­man Repu­blic in 1933,” is of gre­at topi­ca­li­ty, for it depicts the inter­nal, cree­ping dis­so­lu­ti­on of a demo­cra­cy. To put it poin­ted­ly: Hoeg­ner pro­vi­des the evi­dence that tho­se who sleep in demo­cra­cy wake up in dic­ta­tor­s­hip.“ (trans­la­ted from ger­man with deepl.com)

petervonruedenredeeroeffnungsfeier
Prof. Dr. von Rüden during his speech on the occasion of the 60th anniversary

Dr. Hans-Jochen Vogel recal­led the Scholl sib­lings in his speech and appealed:

„Even more important [than get­ting to know each other inter­na­tio­nal­ly], howe­ver, was ano­t­her con­ta­ct of all the­se resi­dents[,] [name­ly] that with the Scholl sib­lings, who­se names they encoun­te­red on a dai­ly basis. So they were in con­stant con­ta­ct with two peop­le who, in a not ent­i­re­ly easy pro­cess, reco­gni­zed the cri­mi­nal cha­rac­ter of the regime of the time, then cal­led for resis­tance to it and ulti­mate­ly sacri­fi­ced their lives for it. Peop­le who aspi­red to a social order based on values, who gran­ted peop­le free­dom and wan­ted peace.
That is why the memo­ry of Hans and Sophie Scholl is also a call to reso­lute­ly oppo­se the attacks on the­se values and our demo­cra­cy, of which the­re is cer­tain­ly no shor­ta­ge at pre­sent.“ (trans­la­ted from ger­man with deepl.com)

dieterreiterredeeroeffnungsfeier
Lord Mayor Dieter Reiter during his 60th anniversary speech

In his cere­mo­ni­al speech, Lord Mayor Die­ter Rei­ter empha­si­zed the soli­da­ri­ty of all Munich’s lord mayors with the stu­dent resi­dence, which bears the name of the Scholl sib­lings. The need to fight racism, discri­mi­na­ti­on and anti-Semi­tism has beco­me topi­cal again, he said. Deve­lo­p­ments that are still mana­ge­ab­le in Munich, but – said Rei­ter: „We never want to see that again in our city.”

Die­ter Rei­ter’s speech spans the arc of sup­port for the Geschwis­ter Scholl e.V. stu­dent resi­dence from the first Munich mayor after World War 2, Tho­mas Wim­mer, to the cur­rent one. This makes it clear that our stu­dent resi­dence is not just one of many, but a Munich spe­cia­li­ty. In order to remain so, and to con­ti­nue to live up to our foun­ding spi­rit and our names­a­kes, it is important for us to con­ti­nue to be more than just a nor­mal stu­dent resi­dence: name­ly, a place whe­re poli­tics, con­tem­pora­ry histo­ry, lite­ra­tu­re and art are debated.